Chronic diarrhea , on the other hand, is characterized by diarrhea lasting longer than two weeks , whereby the causes in these cases can be very diverse.
Possible endogenous, i.e. endogenous, causes include food intolerance such as lactose intolerance (lactose intolerance) or fructose malabsorption and autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease (gluten intolerance). But a irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease are among the most frequent endogenous causes.
The exogenous, i.e. externally acting, causes include bacterial overgrowth or chronically invasive infections of the intestine by bacteria, viruses or parasites. In general, it is always advisable to consult a doctor for clarification , especially in the case of long-term complaints .
Diarrhea can occur through a number of different mechanisms :
Through a physical process called osmosis , undigested components draw water from the surrounding tissue into the interior of the intestine, which in turn can lead to diarrhea or aggravate the diarrhea ( osmotic diarrhea ).
In watery diarrhea, certain substances are either not absorbed from the food pulp into the intestine or actively released from the intestine into the stool , so that excessive amounts of water remain in the stool, which in turn leads to diarrhea: Lactose (milk sugar) and fructose (fruit sugar) are typical substances that, in the event of excessive consumption or existing intolerance, cannot be sufficiently absorbed by the intestine and instead retain water in the food pulp …
The excessive consumption of unusable substances such as certain sweeteners, including sorbitol or mannitol, can also be the cause of watery diarrhea. If so, and you limit your consumption of these foods, it will usually relieve symptoms of diarrhea as well.
Some pathogens, such as cholera bacteria, trigger an increased excretion of water (secretion) into the interior of the intestine in the mucous membrane cells of the intestine. The food pulp located there becomes very fluid (secretory diarrhea).
In the case of chronic infections , however, electrolytes such as sodium or potassium are often increasingly released into the intestine, which in turn means that more water remains in the stool and makes it liquid to watery.
Other gastrointestinal flu pathogens cause severe inflammation of the mucous membrane , which subsequently secretes more mucus and occasionally even blood (exudative diarrhea).
The often severe diarrhea in an acute gastrointestinal infection, on the other hand, results from the impairment of the mucous membrane cells in the small and large intestines. Basically, the different pathogens lead to diarrhea in different ways. There are three different mechanisms . Often it is the combination of these mechanisms that causes the diarrhea in gastrointestinal flu.