A brain tumor is a mass of abnormal cells in the brain. Brain tumors can be benign (benign) or malignant (malignant). Malignant brain tumors are cancer. Although benign brain tumors are not cancer, they can lead to more serious consequences, disability and even death than benign tumors that occur in most other parts of the body. The reason for this is that the brain is in a closed box inside the skull and the extra tissue causes problems with the pressure effect. Benign tumors are sometimes only followed if they are small and do not grow. However, increased intracranial pressure, cerebral edemaor if there is a risk of causing a brain hernia, they can be operated. Surgery can provide a complete cure for benign brain tumors. Cancerous tumors spread to surrounding tissues or other parts of the body. Therefore, it cannot be treated with surgery alone. Radiotherapy or chemotherapy is also often used.

Brain tumors are classified as primary and secondary brain tumors. Primary brain tumors originate from the brain. The majority are benign. Secondary brain tumors are formed by the spread of cancer cells elsewhere in the body, such as the lung and breast, to the brain. Also known as metastatic brain tumor.

Brain Tumor Types

Primary Brain Tumors

Brain cells can originate from the membranes surrounding the brain, glands in the brain, or immune system cells. The most common primary brain tumors in adults are meningiomas and gliomas. They can be benign or malignant.

Gliomas: They develop from glial cells, which are the support cells of the central nervous system. Astrocytoma, oligodendroglial tumors, glioblastoma can be given as examples.

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Other primary brain tumors: Pituitary tumors, pineal gland tumors, ependymomas, craniopharyngiomas, primary central nervous system lymphomas, primary germ cell tumors, meningiomas, schwannomas.

Secondary Brain Tumors

The majority of brain cancers are secondary brain tumors. Lung cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, skin cancer are the cancers that most frequently cause secondary brain tumors.

Risk Factors for Brain Tumor

  • Family history: 5-10% of all cancers are inherited. Those who have a brain tumor in more than one family member may consult a doctor for genetic counseling.
  • Age: The incidence of most brain tumors increases with age.
  • Race: It is more common in Caucasians than Africans.
  • exposure to chemicals
  • radiation exposure

Brain Tumor Symptoms

Symptoms vary according to the location and size of the tumor. While some tumors cause direct brain damage, others cause problems by increasing the pressure on the surrounding brain tissue with the mass effect.

Headache is a common complaint. Headache caused by a brain tumor is most severe when waking up in the morning. It can occur while you sleep; may worsen when coughing, sneezing, or during exercise.

Symptoms such as vomiting, blurred vision, double vision, confusion, seizures, weakness in one half of the face, arm or leg, numbness, and changes in cognitive functions may occur.

Such as memory loss, clumsiness, difficulty in writing or reading, differences in hearing, smell, taste sensations, swallowing disorder, dizziness, tremor in the hand, balance disorder, walking difficulty, personality change, deterioration in bladder or bowel control, limitation of eye movements, asymmetry in the pupils. A wide variety of complaints and findings can be seen.

In pituitary tumors, discharge from the nipple, decreased menstruation in women, breast enlargement in men, enlarged hands and feet, sensitivity to hot or cold, obesity, low blood pressure, increased hair growth, blurred vision may occur.

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Diagnosis is made by questioning the complaints, physical examination, laboratory tests and imaging methods. Brain CT and cranial MRI are the main techniques used to show intracranial masses.


The type, size, location of the tumor and the general health status of the person determine the treatment method. Treatment often includes surgery. The goal is to remove all or as much of the tumor as possible without damaging healthy brain tissue. In this respect, the location of the tumor determines how much intervention can be made. Secondary brain tumors are treated according to the recommended treatment guidelines of the cancers they originate from. Surgery can be used in combination with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Physical therapy and rehabilitation are required to overcome the functional limitations faced by the person after the surgery .

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