Neural Stem Cell – Neural Stem Cell

Neural stem cell or neural stem cell are undifferentiated cells in the central nervous system. These cells have the potential to grow and differentiate into neurons (nerve cells) and glial cells. Nerve cells carry signals, while glial cells are helper cells that support them.

Stem Cells in the Brain

For many years, the brain was thought to be a closed, fixed system. In the second half of the twentieth century, some findings were obtained on the regenerative capacity of brain cells in mice, birds, and primates. During this period, scientists assumed that once the brain was damaged or started to deteriorate, it could not repair itself with new cells, unlike other tissues such as the liver and skin. Since it was thought that new cells could never fully integrate themselves into the existing complex system in the adult brain, it was accepted that no new nerve cells were formed. Neural stem cells in humans were first introduced in 1998 in the hippocampus.It was detected in the brain region responsible for memory formation. Later, it was observed that neural stem cells were active in the olfactory bulb, which is related to the sense of smell. Dormant and inactive neural stem cells were discovered in the septum (a place that processes emotions), the striatum (a place associated with movement processes), and the spinal cord.

Today, scientists are working on drugs that will activate dormant (inactive) neural stem cells. So these cells can repair damaged areas. Another focus of research is persuading neural stem cells to transplant or migrate to damaged sites. Other research has focused on generating neurons and glia from different sources, such as embryonic stem cells. Obtaining stem cells from human embryos is an ethically controversial issue. By manipulating the cells, stem cells with the potential to differentiate into other cells can be obtained from adult somatic cells. However, techniques used to reprogram adult cells (for example, using retroviruses) can lead to risks such as the development of cancer.

Read More  Deep Learning Overview – 2

Neural Stem Cell in Stroke, Brain Damage and Neurological Diseases

Post-stroke recovery is an area where the potential benefits and challenges of stem cell therapy are understood. There are two main approaches to stem cell therapy: endogenous and exogenous. The endogenous approach is based on the stimulation of adult neural stem cells in the patient’s own body. These cells are mainly found in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, striatum, neocortex, and spinal cord. Growth factors (fibroblast growth factor-2, vascular endothelial growth factor, brain-associated neurotrophic factor, erythropoietin) were used in mouse experiments to increase nerve regeneration after a stroke model. Among them, the most pronounced effect was shown with erythropoietin. Positive results have also been seen in studies in humans. Erythropoietin is also being investigated for the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis.

Exogenous stem cell therapies are based on obtaining stem cells, growing them in vitro (in the laboratory), and then transplanting them into damaged areas of the brain. Embryo or fetal stem cells can be used. The processes of differentiation and integration of progenitor cells into existing neural networks continue to be investigated. The differentiation of stem cells is closely related to the microenvironment they are in. It should be possible to match the hormone and growth factor ratios in the surrounding area.

Hematopoietic stem cells that develop into blood cells also have the capacity to evolve into neural lineages. These cells, which can be obtained from bone marrow, umbilical cord or blood, may be beneficial in post-stroke recovery. Hematopoietic stem cells can be mobilized with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). These cells can be placed locally in the damaged area of ​​the nervous system or administered systemically by the intravenous (intravenous) route. Intravenous administration is the more practical and most widely used method. Apart from the treatment of stroke, it can also be an effective tool in the treatment of neurological diseases such as epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. Approaches based on the regeneration of damaged tissues provide the development of a new branch of science called regenerative rehabilitation .

Read More  Hypnosis and its Neuroscientific Foundations

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.