The problem known as shoulder tear is the general expression of partial or complete tears, damage to various muscle fibers, tendons, ligaments and cartilage tissue in the shoulder joint. The very mobility of the shoulder joint makes it prone to injury. The most common types of injury are fiber stretching, compression, bruising, and tears. Shoulder tear is a very broad concept. There are specific types of injury to many structures in this complex joint. Understanding the true cause of complaints such as shoulder pain, limitation of movement and weakness is also a guide for treatment.
The protrusion of the scapula called the acromion and the joint made by the collarbone is called the acromioclavicular joint (AC joint). Injury of this joint above the shoulder (English: sprain ) is referred to as an acromioclavicular joint injury. Stretching or tearing the ligaments that connect the two bones can lead to dislocation or separation of the AC joint. Traumas such as traffic accidents, falling on an extended arm are the main causes of AC joint injury.
AC joint injuries are graded according to the extent of ligament damage and bone separation. In stage 1 injury, the ligament is stretched and may tear partially, but the bones do not move apart. In stage 2 injury, ligaments are torn, pain and swelling occur. In stage 3 injury, the bones move away from each other, and the collarbone may be displaced. More severe grades 4, 5, and 6 injuries with rupture of muscle fibers have also been described, but these are rare.
The stretching or injury of a muscle or tendon fiber in the shoulder can be expressed as shoulder strain (English: strain ). When the shoulder stays in the same position for a long time, when sitting at the computer for a long time with bad posture, when a heavy backpack is carried by hanging it on one shoulder, there may be strain on the shoulder fibers. It is also a common problem in sports such as swimming and tennis where the arms must be constantly raised above the head.
A tear may occur in one of the soft tissues that provide movement or strength to the shoulder joint. The cartilage tissue forming the edge of the articular surface in the said torn muscle, tendon or scapula may occur in the labrum.
Muscle and tendon tears can be partial or full thickness. If the tendon ruptures completely, it is called a rupture. Shoulder tears can develop over time due to a sudden injury or overuse. Small tears can lead to larger tears and ruptures. The main reason for fiber damage is that the arm has to do the same movements excessively due to sports, hobby or work. During shoulder dislocation due to trauma, muscles and tendons can be torn by slipping and stretching. Shoulder calcification is a type of arthritis whose incidence increases with age. Due to the formation of bone protrusions in calcification, tendons can be compressed and the friction they are exposed to may increase; Calcification is another cause of fiber tear.
Shoulder fiber tears cause pain, limitation of movement and weakness in certain movements of the arm that concern that muscle. Complaints are not always proportional to the degree of injury. A small injury seen on MRI of the shoulder joint can cause severe pain, but there may be no pain despite a complete rupture in the fiber.
Rotator Coffee Hernia
The muscle group that connects the arm bone to the scapula and is located around the shoulder joint is called the rotator cuff or rotator cuff muscles. Tears in these muscles or their tendons are called rotator cuff tears.
Biceps Tendon Hernia
The biceps muscle is the muscle in the front of the arm that bulges when we bend the elbow. The biceps muscle is attached to the shoulder by means of two tendons. The short tendon attaches the biceps to the coracoid process of the scapula. The long tendon attaches to the upper part of the shoulder joint socket, the upper end of the glenoid labrum. Tear of the long tendon of the biceps muscle is a very common problem. The short tendon, on the other hand, is not easily injured due to its location.
The last of the shoulder tears are the tears that occur in the cartilage tissue called the labrum, which surrounds the hollow part that forms the shoulder joint in the scapula. The rounded head of the humerus is much larger than the corresponding depression of the scapula. The labrum enlarges this pit and strengthens the shoulder joint. There are several ligaments attached to the labrum. A labrum tear may occur as a result of trauma or overuse in which these ligaments are strained.
The long tendon of the biceps muscle is attached to the upper edge of the labrum. A tear of the labrum in this area is called a SLAP tear. Biceps tendon tear and SLAP tear can occur together. The tear that occurs at the lower anterior edge of the labrum is called a Bankart tear. If it affects the back of the shoulder, it is called a reverse Bankart tear.
In labral tears, if a part of the cartilage is stuck between the bones, a cracking or cracking sound may be heard when moving the arm. There may be a feeling of being stuck in the joint, that is, its movement beyond a certain angle may be restricted.