Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs in the ovary. They occur frequently and often occur during ovulation. What’s called ovulation happens when the ovary releases an egg each month. Many women with ovarian cysts do not have symptoms. Cysts usually do not cause any harm. You can find more information below.

What is an ovarian cyst?

An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac that develops in a woman’s ovary. Ovarian cysts are very common and usually do not cause any symptoms. In most cases, they are harmless and usually disappear without the need for treatment. However, if the cyst is large or causing symptoms, it will likely need to be surgically removed.

How common is an ovarian cyst?

Ovarian cysts are very common. It is estimated that almost all women who still have monthly menstrual periods and 1 in 5 women going through menopause will have one or more ovarian cysts. Ovarian cysts that cause symptoms affect only 1 in 25 women at some point in their lives, meaning they are much less common.

Types of ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts (called functional cysts ) commonly form during the menstrual cycle . They are usually benign (not cancerous).

The two most common types of cysts are:

  • Follicle cysts: In a normal menstrual cycle, one ovary releases an egg each month. The egg grows in a small sac called a follicle. When the egg matures, the follicle opens to release the egg. Follicle cysts form when the follicle does not open to release the egg. This causes the follicle to continue to turn into a cyst. Follicular cysts usually have no symptoms and go away within one to three months.
  • Corpus luteum cysts: When the follicle ruptures and releases the egg, the empty follicle sac shrinks into a mass of cells called the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum makes hormones to prepare the next egg for the next menstrual cycle. If the follicle sac does not shrink, corpus luteum cysts form. In this case, the sac closes again after the egg is released, and then fluid accumulates inside. Most corpus luteum cysts disappear after a few weeks. However, they can grow to almost four inches wide. They can also bleed or twist the ovary and cause pain. Some medications that cause ovulation can increase the risk of getting these cysts.
Read More  What Causes Headaches During Pregnancy?

Other benign ovarian cysts are less common:

  • Endometriomas are caused by endometriosis . Endometriosis occurs when the lining of the uterus grows outside the uterus.
  • Dermoids are composed of embryonic cells and are rarely malignant tumors. It usually does not cause symptoms.
  • Cystadenomas form on the surface of the ovary and are filled with fluid. Sometimes they can grow.

In some women, the ovaries make many small cysts. This is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS can cause problems with the ovaries and getting pregnant.

Malignant (cancerous) cysts are rare. These are more common in older women. Cancerous cysts are ovarian cancer . Therefore, ovarian cysts should be checked by your doctor. It should not be forgotten that; Most ovarian cysts are not cancerous.

Causes of ovarian cyst

The most common causes of ovarian cysts are:

  • Hormonal problems: Functional cysts usually go away on their own without treatment. It can be caused by hormonal problems or by medications used to help you ovulate.
  • Endometriosis: Women with endometriosis can develop a type of ovarian cyst called an endometrioma. Endometriosis tissue can attach to the ovary and form a growth. These cysts can be painful during sexual intercourse and during menstruation.
  • Pregnancy: An ovarian cyst normally helps support the pregnancy at the beginning of pregnancy, until the placenta forms. Sometimes the cyst remains in the ovary until late in pregnancy and may need to be removed.
  • Severe pelvic infections: Infections can spread to the ovaries and fallopian tubes and cause cysts to form.

Ovarian cyst symptoms

Usually, ovarian cysts do not cause any symptoms. In fact, you may not know you have an ovarian cyst until it is found by your doctor during a routine pelvic exam. In some cases, some or all of the following symptoms may be experienced:

  • Pressure, swelling, and pain in the abdomen or pelvic area
  • Dull pain in lower back and thigh
  • Pain during menstruation or sexual intercourse
  • breast tenderness
  • abnormal bleeding
  • Gaining weight
  • Problems emptying your bladder completely
  • nausea or vomiting

When should you see a doctor?

You should contact your doctor or gynecologist as soon as possible if you have any of the following symptoms, as the ovarian cyst may burst. These symptoms can also be a sign of ovarian cancer:

  • Pain with fever and vomiting
  • sudden, severe abdominal pain
  • Pallor, dizziness or weakness
  • rapid breathing
Read More  Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy

Diagnosis of ovarian cyst

Your doctor may do any or all of the following tests to determine if the cyst is cancerous and help develop a treatment plan:

  • Ultrasound: Sound waves are used to create an image of the ovaries, which can help your doctor determine the size and location of the cyst or tumor and whether it is fluid-filled, solid, or tangled.
  • Other imaging tests: Computed tomography , magnetic resonance imaging , and positron emission tomography are highly detailed imaging scans that your doctor can use to find ovarian tumors, determine if they have spread and how far they have spread.
  • Hormone levels: Your doctor may do a blood test to check the levels of various hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and testosterone.
  • Laparoscopy: This is a surgical procedure that uses a thin, light-tipped device that is inserted into the abdomen. During this surgery, cysts or tumors can be detected and a small piece of tissue removed (biopsy) to test for cancer.
  • Blood test: If the growth is likely to be cancerous, your doctor may do a blood test to look for a protein called CA-125 . Levels of this protein tend to be higher in some (but not all) women with ovarian cancer. This test is mainly used in women over 35 who are at a slightly higher risk for ovarian cancer.

Ovarian cyst treatment

Treatments, if needed, depend on the size of the ovarian cyst and the symptoms experienced. Ovarian cyst treatments may include any of the following:

  • pain relievers
  • Warm bath, heating pad, or hot water bottle applied to the lower abdomen
  • Ice bags lined with towels used alternately as cold treatments to increase circulation
  • Combined hormonal contraception methods
  • strenuous activity limitations

Remember, your doctor will decide which medicine to take and how.

If you are postmenopausal or have a cyst, your doctor may recommend surgery to remove the cyst if:

  • If the size is large
  • If it causes pain
  • If it looks abnormal on ultrasound
  • If it doesn’t go away after a few menstrual cycles
Read More  What is Adenomyosis?

Types of surgery for ovarian cyst

Generally, three surgical procedures can be performed for ovarian cysts, these are:

  • Laparoscopy

This type of surgery is done if the cyst is small and looks benign on ultrasound. A small incision will be made near the navel and a small, flexible instrument equipped with fiber optics will be inserted into the abdomen. The instrument allows your doctor to view and remove the cyst.

  • laparotomy

This type of surgery is done if the cyst is large and possibly cancerous. Cuts are made to remove the cyst in the stomach area, which is then tested for cancer. If it is cancerous, the doctor may need to remove the ovaries and other tissues, such as the uterus.

  • Robotic assisted

If ovarian removal is found to be necessary, this type of surgery may be recommended by your doctor. This minimally invasive technique, like laparoscopic surgery, is performed using a special machine (robot) to perform the surgery through small incisions in the abdomen. Despite being called a robot, the machine does not move on its own, but is an extension of the surgeon’s hands.

They control the robot’s hand movements. The robot’s camera and lighting system also provides your surgeon with a magnified, high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) view of the surgical field. This minimally invasive technique provides patients with benefits such as less post-operative pain, faster recovery times, less bleeding and less scarring.

However, minimally invasive robotic surgery may not be the best option for everyone. Your doctor can explain all the options available to treat your ovarian cysts, including whether you are a good candidate for minimally invasive robotic surgery.

Ovarian cyst and pregnancy

Ovarian cysts usually do not affect a woman’s ability to conceive. Even if the cyst is larger and needs to be removed, this is usually done using laparoscopy, which preserves a woman’s fertility.

Can ovarian cyst be prevented?

No, unless your ovulation stops (unless you’re in menopause), you don’t have a chance to prevent functional ovarian cysts. If you have persistent ovarian cysts, your doctor may recommend hormonal birth control pills to prevent ovulation. This will significantly reduce your risk of forming new cysts.

Related Posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.